What is Lithology in Geography? What Does Lithology Science Mean?


Geology, one of the most important sub-branches of earth science, which was established to understand the earth’s crust of the world we live in, lithology or stony science, allows us to better understand the stones and rocks we see around us. Let’s take a closer look at the questions like what is lithology and what does it deal with.

Since its existence, humanity has tried to understand this planet called Earth, and has established many science fields and sub-branches for this purpose. It is one of many sub-branches of geology, that is, earth science, which aims to illuminate what is happening in the earth’s crust by researching it historically and scientifically. lithology or also known as stone science, makes important studies by examining the stones and rocks around us.

Lithology studies are based on examining stones and rocks where they are. By examining the chemical and physical properties of stones, a historical plot is simulated, thus revealing what an ordinary stone actually lived through for millions of years. In this way, even from a simple stone or rock, information that we can get to know our world better is obtained. Bride what is lithology, what does it deal with Let’s take a closer look at the frequently asked questions.

What is lithology, its fields of study and its studies:

What is lithology, what does it mean?

Lithology or stone science in Turkish; stones and rocks found on earth including physical properties It is a branch of science that examines many criteria. In lithology studies, the physical and chemical structures of stones such as color, texture, grain structure and composition are examined. In order to prevent damage to stones and rocks, lithology studies are often carried out without moving the stone and rock in the area.

Lithology studies are different from petrology, which focuses on a single stone or rock. Petrology studies a single stone or rock and ignores its surroundings. Lithology is used to make investigations. chooses a region. All rocks and stones in the selected region are examined in terms of their chemical and physical properties, and the historical process of the region in question is simulated.

Fields of study of lithology: What does lithology deal with?


Lithology, as the Turkish name suggests, deals with stones, rocks and rocks. Over to explore its chemical and physical properties Through the stones, rocks and rocks that were examined, the stages that both the examined object and the region where the object is located during the historical process are determined.

As a result of lithological studies, the naming of stones, rocks and rocks is made on three basic types. An object as a result of investigation called igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic. Other findings are tried to be reached by making class-specific studies on the object, which is determined to belong to which class by basic physical examinations or detailed chemical examinations.

Types of rocks studied by lithology and their properties:

  • Magmatic
  • cake
  • Metamorphic



The molten material that makes up our Earth’s mantle formed during magma stones, rocks and rocks are called igneous or volcanic. Objects considered in the igneous class are molten rocks containing gases and liquids. They are formed as a result of the loss of gas and cooling of magma in the depths of the earth as a result of volcanic eruptions.

Apart from volcanic eruptions, magma tends to solidify in some deep fissures. the slower These objects of endogenous origin, They are called igneous rocks. In terms of their composition, it is possible to talk about two types of igneous rocks;

  • Acidic igneous rocks with a high content of silica and small amounts of quartz, iron and magnesium.
  • Basic igneous rocks containing small amounts of silica and high amounts of iron and magnesium but no quartz.


Stones, rocks and rocks that are formed as a result of erosion experienced by rocks that are already on the earth’s surface are called sedimentary. Because they are made of materials found on earth are of exogenous origin. Sediments containing calcium, limestone, and minerals are formed from an existing rock as a result of a process called precipitation. So they actually already exist.