What is Lithology in Geography? What Does Lithology Science Mean?

Accelerating or slowing down the precipitation process in the formation of sediments water, temperature value, wind and drift are of great importance. Although it may seem simple, this process takes millions of years. As a result of external effects and pressures of the upper layers, sediments accumulate and eventually emerge with a strong tectonic movement. Limestone is one of the best-known sedimentary examples.


Metamorphic rocks are both somewhat igneous and somewhat sedimentary, but actually neither. They can occur deep in the earth’s crust or on the surface. There is a formation process like the sediment we know, but they are exposed to much higher pressure and much higher temperature. It is even possible to talk about magma gases in the formation process of the metamorphic rock at a deep point.

To give an example of the metamorphic rock formation process, magma coming into contact with a surface rock possible to say. Another example of the formation of this type, which has variants such as contact metamorphism and dislocation metamorphism, is the pressure to which sediments and igneous rocks are subjected during the movements of tectonic plates. As a result of this pressure, metamorphic rocks emerge.

Some of the detection criteria of lithology:

  • particle structure
  • mineral structure
  • Colour
  • surface


Particle structure:

The grain structure of metamorphic and igneous rocks is extremely important because this structure describing the cooling process of the rock is the most important finding. While a rock consisting of large particles is in igneous structure, a rock with small particles is distinguished in terms of formation process, even if it is igneous. A similar situation is encountered in the grain sizes of rocks consisting of a single mineral.

Mineral structure:

The mineral structure of rocks, also called mineralogy, is sometimes structures large enough to be detected using a simple hand lens may appear as The mineral structure directly shows us the stages that the rock went through during the formation process. Different structures such as vascular mineral structure or granular mineral structure also provide an understanding of this process.


Lithology can make some basic determinations by looking at even the most basic physical features. The first of these is color. The examining scientist can even look at the color of the stone, rock, or outer shell of the rock. basic classification can do. Of course, the colors of the parts that make up it are also extremely important.


The surface structure of a stone, rock or boulder hides the most basic information about its formation process. for example a surface structure, called stratification, It is a typical feature of sedimentary rocks. To give another example, metamorphic rocks often have a fairly flat and linear surface.

Considered as one of the most important sub-disciplines of geology, What is lithology or stone science in Turkish, what does it deal with? We answered the frequently asked questions and talked about the details you need to know about the subject. You can share your thoughts on such extraordinary branches of science in the comments.